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Unveiling the Dhamma Chakra

by Piyasiri M.L. Hettige, Founder Dhamma Vivarana Movement

All Buddhists know that the Buddha through His own effort, self realised the four Noble Universal Truths of Natural Laws governing all Sansaric life without the guidance of any teacher or divine intervention. Thus it would be plausible to expect the Buddha to take great pains in His very first sermon to transfer His new found knowledge vis-a-viz, the mental process for the self understanding of the truths of life to all beings who were intelligent enough to benefit from this methodology he had perfected, which actually consisted of a four stage Cyclic Mental Facility Powering Sequence (CMFPS) which could be utilised by any intelligent human being to transform one's understanding concerning a particular subject from Avijja (darkness of ignorance) to Vijja (light of mundane knowledge) in four co-ordinate mental facility upliftment stages and then onto the fifth stage Aloko (the dawning of the light of complete understanding on that subject).

Thus the compassionate Buddha realising the great significance of this new found knowledge used this methodology to unfathom and find ways and means to negate the riddle of sansaric suffering (Dukka) all beings are subjected to, due to the never ending chain of re-becoming. He took the first available opportunity to share this great knowledge, that enabled him to understand the natural laws governing all life forming Sansaras, which He referred to as the "Dhamma", which has since become, a boon to humanity, by proclaiming to the three worlds the Dhamma Chakra Pawathana Sutta, His first sermon, which was delivered, on the Full Moon Day of July in the year B.C. 588, at the Deer Park at Isipathana, in the Prakrit language. This sermon is supposed to have been preached throughout the night over a twelve-hour period. The present Dhamma Chakra Pawathana Sutta now available in the Pali language takes about half to one hour to recite, therefore one can only imagine to what extent this most important of all Suttas has been masked so as to suppress this most vital Dhamma message of the Buddha.

The present Pali version of the Dhamma Chakra Pawathana Sutta limits itself to outline the two extremes to be avoided and goes on to repeat the sequential Aloko Chakras (sequential mental powering cycles) twelve times as utilised by the Buddha to self understand, verify, and validate the veracity and effectiveness of each of the four Noble Universal Truths governing all forms of suffering due to the never ending chain of sansaric re-becoming of all life.

The significance of His repeating these sequential mental upliftment cycles twelve times in the sermon goes to emphasize the extreme importance of this mind upliftment sequence which He requested the Dhamma followers to adhere to, for their mental power upliftment using the Dhamma Pathaways which could also be used even to solve day to day problems of an intelligent person.

The Pali language version of the Dhamma Chakra Pawathana Sutta (The only one available in the Pali Tripitaka) specifies this mental sequence as follows:

Chakkhum Udapadi, Gnanam Udapadi, Panna Udapadi, Vijja Udapadi, Aloko Udapadi

This Cyclic Mental Facility Powering Sequence (CMFPS) or Aloko Chakra, could be explained in English as arising of Chakkhum or Right Vision (correct identification and isolation of the particular process you are ignorant of and constance mindful awareness of it) results in the arising of Gnana or definite knowledge (understanding of that subject or process) which leads to arising of Panna or Wisdom endowed with perfected knowledge on that subject, thus dispelling (Avijja) ignorance and facilitating the arising of Vijja, in-depth mystical knowledge on that subject (that could be accessed even from ones previous births) which finally leads one to the arising of Aloko, light or complete understanding concerning that subject never known before.

The above Cyclic Mental Facility Powering Sequence (CMFPS) was used by the Buddha repeatedly to self understand and gain insight on the baffling problem of the never ending cycle of suffering Dukka) due to re-becoming of life or Sansara regeneration. The Buddha utilised this sequential mental facility upliftment cycle to self realise, validate and verify with full understanding the following four Nobel Universal Truths:

!. That each being forms one's own Sansara which subject that being to recurring mental and physical suffering (Dukka) associated with decay and death resulting from Kamma dependent repeated re-becoming due to ones own craving (Thanha) for existence.

2. That craving for re-becoming Thanha), which generate reciprocal Kamma Mental Energy, was the root cause that induce one to activate future sansaras and hence the never ending incidence of resulting cycles of mental and physical suffering (Dukka).

3. That it was possible to effect the cessation of the generation of future Sansaras which cause mental and physical suffering (Dukka) by eradication of Craving Thanha), the causative factor of Kamma Mental Energy, that induce one to form a new Sansara if that being possessed the knowledge of the "Dhamma" (natural laws governing all life) and that one's salvation is dependant only on one's knowledge of the Dhamma.

4. The knowledge of the Dhamma pathways that would lead one to the complete eradication of (Thanha) craving, thus annihilating the karmic mental energy forces that induce beings to form Sansaras, and that they could be utilised only during a human birth.

The Buddha investigated each of the above truths three times on the same Cyclic Mental Facility Powering Sequence (CMFPS) firstly to verify the validity of each truth as applicable to all sansaric life, secondly to ascertain the viability of each truth in terms of sansaric life and thirdly to ascertain the none variability and veracity of each truth to withstand the test time.

After, thus, analyzing each of the four Noble Truths three times using the CMFPS (Aloko Chakra) process, He was ready to share His knowledge with the intelligent beings who would be able to benefit from the Dhamma Wisdom contained in the Four Nobel Truths and specifically the Nobel Eight Fold Path which would guide all ordinary humans who wish to lead their lives as lay persons in accordance with the Dhamma and the Noble Tenfold Path for the Elite whose only goal was the immediate attainment of the State of Nibbana, during this Buddhasasana itself and were interested in entering the order of the Sangha. Thus it would be most unbecoming of a Buddhist monk to hope to attain Nibbana during a subsequent Buddhasasana.

The Dhamma Chakra of Sammasambuddha Gotama

Thus the Dhamma Chakra portraying the Dhamma Vinnana Chakra utilised by the Buddha to fully realise the Dhamma could be depicted by two smooth concentric circles representing the Mundane Gnana (Conscious Mind) encircled by the Vijja Gnana Complex (super Conscious Mind) of the Human Vinnana interconnected to each other through twelve segments, each segment representing the Cyclic Mental Facility Powering Sequence (CMFPS) used by the Buddha. As the Buddha had attained full Enlightenment the central core of His Dhamma Vinnana Chakra is replaced by two concentric circles, outer one of these two representing the various Super Mundane Gnanas, He had perfected, enclosing the central core portraying the ultimate Asavakya Gnana of a Fully Enlighten Sammasambuddha.

Dhamma Aloko Vinnana Chakra of a Member of the Maha Sangha

For the members of the Sangha order He proclaimed the Noble Tenfold Dhamma Aloko Vinnana Chakra applicable to Buddhist monks seeking deliverance from Sansara, which could be depicted by two smooth circles representing The Vinnana (Gnana and Vijja) Chakras of a member of the Sangha enclosing ten segments, each segment depicting a sequential mental power upliftment cycle for mindful contemplation on the Noble Ten Fold Pathways to Nibbana to be constantly adhered by the monk. It would, eventually, enclose two concentric centre circles which would portray the two additional pathways of Perfect Gnana attainment leading to the achievement Magical and Mystical Powers of which the central core circle would represent the desired mode of Deliverance, once the monks is established as an Arahant or Pachcheka Buddha. The Ten Fold Pathways they are expected to pursue to perfection, using the Cyclic Mental Facility Powering Sequence (CMFPS), are:

1. CMFPS on perfect understanding of the Dhamma

2. CMFPS on perfect thoughts or purpose of Dhamma practice

3. CMFPS on perfect speech (Dhamma discussions and Dhamma Dana)

4. CMFPS on perfect actions suitable for monks in keeping with the Vinaya rules

5. CMFPS on perfect mode of livelihood applicable to a member of the Sangha

6. CMFPS on perfect effort or endeavour to attain the goal of Nibbana

7. CMFPS on perfect mindfulness (living with moment to moment mindful awareness)

8. CMFPS on perfect concentration and meditation on the Dhamma

9. CMFPS on perfecting of Gnana (development magical and mystical knowledge)

10. CMFPS on perfection of mode of deliverance or Vimukthi, (definite goal as regards mode of attainment of Enlightenment).

Thus the Buddhist monk should have no other aspiration except to attain the Nibbana of His choice as soon as possible and should always work towards this goal, as long as one wears the yellow robes and lives within the ranks of the Bhikkhu or Bhikkuni order, since there is no alternative salvation for those who enter the order of the Sangha. If a monk wishes to deviate from the Tenfold Dhamma Aloko Vinnana Chakka one has to leave the order and become an ordinary layman.

The Dhamma Aloko Vinnana Chakra for Laypersons

For the laypersons whom Buddha called Upasakas and Upasikas, He proclaimed the Nobel Eight Fold Path with the Eightfold Dhamma Aloko Vinnana Chakra, which would ensure that they could live as Elite Human Beings with Dhamma wisdom during this and in future Sansaras.

1. CMFPS on right view based on the understanding of the Dhamma

2. CMFPS on right purpose or thought in accordance with the Dhamma

3. CMFPS on right speech pertaining to humans

4. CMFPS on right action or behaviour befitting a human

5. CMFPS on right mode of livelihood according to Dhamma

6. CMFPS on right endeavour or effort

7. CMFPS on right moment to moment mindful awareness of ones actions

8. CMFPS on right concentration based on the Dhamma

The layperson with knowledge of the Dhamma is not expected to go beyond the Righteous aspects of adherence to the Noble Eightfold Paths during this life, where one can live a normal, fruitful and useful life as a human being and progress in life as an upwardly mobile person in all future manifestations of this sansara as a human if that be His wish. The layperson can continue to live out any number of sansaric lives according to the Dhamma as long as they restrict themselves to the Human Sansaric Middle Path by powering ones Vinnana with Dhamma mental energy to ensure that they be born as elite human beings by utilising the Cyclic Mental Facility Powering Sequence (CMFPS) to solve ones everyday problems within the confines of the Noble Eightfold Pathways. The Dhamma Aloko Vinnana Chakra applicable to Dayakas or laypersons could be represented by Two Smooth Chakras (Circles or Wheels) Depicting the Gnana and Vijja Gnana Chakras interlinked by the Eight Sequential Mind Powering Segments each representing a righteous activity as portrayed in the Noble Eightfold Path within which there is only one concentric circle depicting the Dhamma Vinnana Chakra necessary to avoid the two Sansaric extremes of Deva Worlds with extreme sensuality or the animal worlds and hell etc. where one has to put up with extreme deprivations till all of one's sinful Kamma mental energy is expended. As explained by the Buddha the only safe instance a Human Being can visit a Deva World is after He attains the first stage of Sotapanna on the Enlightenment sequence.

Thus for a layperson who knows the Dhamma, practices and lives according to the Nobel Eightfold Path, it is superfluous to observe the five precepts repeatedly as this would be like 'showing leaves' to a person who knows the 'tree' since He is fully aware of the consequence of contravening this set of basic human guidelines applicable to all humans, even to those not fortunate to understand the Dhamma. Therefore what is amiss in the present practice of the Dhamma is that the followers are not able to obtain first hand moment to moment mindful understanding of the Dhamma from Buddha's sermon such as Karaniya Metta Sutta, Rathana Sutta, Mangala Sutta, Parabhava Sutta, Sevithabba Asevithabba Sutta, Sigalowada Sutta, Kalama Sutta, Chakrawarthi Sihanada Sutta and other important Suttas that would impart the vital Dhamma Wisdom to them, since they are made to recite these Suttas, by the Bhikkhus, like mantras in the Pali language which they do not understand. Thus depriving the Dhamma followers the vital element of moment to moment mindful awareness of the Dhamma.

Vinnana Chakra of a person unaware of the Dhamma

Where as a person who does not know the Dhamma, the central core, enclosed by the two concentric circles representing the outer Gnana Chakraand Vijja Gnana Chakra, will be represented by that person's Kamma Vinnana Chakra, which will toss that person aimlessly from one Sansara to the next Sansara according to the dictates of the Kamma mental Energy contained in ones Vinnana. In the instance one abides by the five precepts applicable to all begins living in civilised societies, at least, during the major potion of ones life span, that person may be able to live the next sansara in a Deva world, but it will be a temporary respite before the past evil Kamma Mental Energy take over after the good Kamma Mental Energy is unable to maintain that Sansara in the Deva world and propel that Vinnana to form Sansaras, only according to its predominating Evil Kamma Mental Energy capacity either in the animal worlds or as hell beings. This is inevitable since existence in any Deva world will exhaust almost all of ones good Kamma Mental Energy and that Vinnana will not be able to form a Human Sansara till the Evil Kamma Mental Energy level to become relatively lower than the good Kamma Mental Energy contained in that particular Vinnana.

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