Training methods and types of training | Sunday Observer

Training methods and types of training

18 October, 2020

A training method is the form of exercise you select to improve your fitness. The training method selected has a significant impact on training outcomes. Training must be relevant to your goals, this refers to the training principle of specificity. Training methods to improve speed, strength, and power 

The following types of training improve speed, strength and power:

Resistance training (weight training) 

This training method improves strength, power or muscular endurance. The area of fitness developed is determined by the resistance, repetitions, and sets performed. Resistance training can be performed using dumbbells, barbells, resistance machines, pulleys, body weight or equipment such as kettlebells, resistance bands or sandbags.

A performer completes a specific number of repetitions and sets depending on their goals. The intensity of weight training can be calculated through working out your one max rep and then working at a percentage of their one max rep.  To develop strength and power, an individual  will perform 3-5 sets of 3-5 reps at 85-95 % of their 1 rep max repTo develop muscular hypertrophy (increased  muscle size and strength) an individual will perform 3-5 sets of 8-12 reps  at 70-80 % 1 rep maxTo develop muscular endurance, an individual  will perform 2-3 sets of 12-20 reps at approximately 60 % of their 1 rep  max. 

The idea of resistance training is to contract a muscle against a resistance. The exercises selected must relate to the muscle groups used in sport and your training goals. A sprint cyclist, for example, would focus on strength training in their leg muscles. Often, 6-8 exercises are performed, starting with compound (large) exercises such as the squat, deadlift or bent over rows and finishing with isolation (small) exercises such as bicep curls or lateral raises.

Example of a whole-body muscular hypertrophy training session. Perform 3 sets of 10 repetitions of the following exercises with 2 minutes rest in between sets.  Squat, Chest press, Lunge, Bent over row, Shoulder press, Bicep curl, Leg extension. 

Training methods to improve cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance  Continuous training 

Involves low-intensity exercise for long periods of time without a rest or break. A performer normally performs continuous training for a minimum of 20 minutes in their aerobic training zone (60-80 % of heart rate max). An example continuous training workout could be a 30 minute run at 60 % heart rate max. Adjusting the pace or effort of the activity can vary the exercise intensity, for example instead of running at 60 % heart rate max, increase to 70 %.        Fartlek training 

Fartlek is a Swedish word for speed play and is a form of continuous training during which the speed or terrain of the activity is varied so that both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems are stressed.   This could involve periods of sprinting, jogging or walking or could include uphill, downhill and flat running.  Due to the nature of the different intensities, this type of training is useful for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, speed, recovery times and lactate threshold (the amount of lactate acid you can tolerate). This is often a more demanding form of training compared to continuous training due to the higher intensities.

Example of fartlek training sessions:  5-minute jog to warm up

Sprint for 30 seconds

Jog for 90 seconds

Run approx. 75 % for 50 seconds

Jog for 90 seconds

Repeat 6 times